Duality Nature Project: April 2011

Thursday, April 28, 2011

Radios, Basebands, RIL, ROOT Superuser, ROM, Bootloader, Modem, Phone Unlock

 I tried asking many questions on popular forums to get these answers. At first glance people seemed knowledgeable. I had some experience with Iphone unlocking and jailbreaking iPhone's and sim unlocking blackberries. I was told that I needed to CID unlock a touch pro 2. I repeatedly asked what a CID lock was specifically but was never directly answered. It was always alluded to in conversations, but never spoken of directly in technical or straightforwards terms. I found a few definitions that a CID unlock allows the flashing of new ROM's. I concluded that the CID unlock was the same as the bootloader as to flash a new ROM one has to be in bootloader and you cannot get access to bootloader when you are on stock ROM/unchanged ROM from carrier. The bootloader is also referred to as ROOT access or Superuser access, because it is the Root of your device when the higher programs like the OS (operating system) has not loaded yet, so you effectly have more control. It is similar to boot screen on a pc. The hardware is different from a pc though in that smartphones like the Touch pro 2 or an iphone use flash memory called EEPROM (electrically eraseable reprogrammable read only memory) that is much easier to manipulate than traditional ROM on a desktop with certain techniques but also more resistant to change or damage vs a desktop computer's ROM. To get access to the bootloader/tricolor/rainbow/etc... could be considered a form of unlocking from the original carriers intended use so once done it can be used in different more advanced ways. Once the bootloader or root access is given, then ROM's can be flashed. Additionally, radio's can be flashed as well when they come prepackaged with other stock roms like sprint stock RUU (rom upgrade utility). I would install a stock RUU to get the radio, not necessarily the ROM itself and then  reflash a custom ROM like MightyROM for Windows phone or Cydia for iPHone. 

The other part to unlocking I found out is the radio. Every radio has certain software that tells it how to function or behave and what signals to collect and what signals to ignore. These are called protocols and are like commands or rules that the radio obeys when functioning. For example a command for the radio could be to connect to a sprint network on 1900 MHz signals. Another command could be ignore signals from Verizon 900 MHz frequencies. Another command that seems to be built into the radio on smartphones is ignore AM/FM frequencies so you can't get traditional radio, although the phone is fully capable of doing so. Part of the reason is because if the radio hardware on your phone picks up too many signals it means it is operating at a faster pace and thus using more electricity and more of the CPU, so there are commands to rule out certain frequencies and that makes it more efficient. The commands have to do with what is called a Radio Interface Layer (RIL). The RIL has two parts a driver and a proxy to communicate with the operating system. So for example you try to connect to Sprint or another carrier on your phone and you go to try to set up a connection in your settings by donig something like Dial Up Networking or Wireless area protocol, Wireless Tether, etc... and you might find that some of them don't work. This is because if the commands are not supported or communicated directly to the RIL then they can be blocked. One way to get around a block is to install new radio software that supports the features or commands that you want to use. Usually the radio software on your phone is also referred to as baseband such as on iphone or android phones in phone settings or device information, about phone section, etc... depending on what type of phone that you have. For example you can take the radio/baseband software that was on an iPad and put it on an iPhone 3gs and get reception from a T-Mobile sim card this way whereas originally with the stock radio/baseband you couldn't.

Now you may also notice that the radio or baseband is also referred to or synomous with modem such as in some connection settings which may say something like, "set up your modem". This is because the modem is the actual device or hardware that picks up radio signals for your phone to use, such as 19oo MHz Sprint or 900 MHz Verizon. A modem is basically an electronic piece of hardware that performs the same or similar functions to a traditional radio that get's radio signals/frequencies. Additionally radio frequencies are invisible and are in the air all the time such as when you turn a car radio on it gets different frequencies or radio stations depending on where you turn the dial, like FM station Z 107.7 or FM station 105.7 the Point. A modem is basically a very tiny piece of hardware that performs the functions of a radio in that it takes invisible radio signals and converts them into data like sound or pictures on the internet. 

So basically you have the motherboard on a device like a phone that contains a CPU and a modem/Radio. What signals and rules the radio/modem obeys is determined by the radio software or baseband generally and  the radio/modem communicates to the CPU through a RIL or Radio Interface Layer that contains a Driver and a Proxy. The CPU can get it's commands to tell and communicate with the radio/modem in many different ways but the main way is the OS or operating system such as when you are trying to set up a new connection in your phone settings for bluetooth or wifi or something similar it is sending commands from where you are (which is the OS) to the CPU which is communicated with the Modem/Radio via the Radio Interface Layer. Its kind of like having a bunch of guys in the room and guy "A" and Guy "C" want to speak to each other but neither speaks the others language so they need a middle man Guy "B" to translate for them. In this case the RIL is translating infromation between the CPU and the Radio/Modem and so it has all the power between those interactions/communications. 

Hopefully that clears things up so far so now I will tell about the 3 common types of locks:


Most people are familiar with SIM lock. Sims are used most places in the world. Usually you just have to enter an unlock code. The other type of lock is a CDMA lock. There is also an unlock code for this. For verizon and U.S. cellular the code is defaulted to 000000. CDMA lock only applies to CDMA phones which operate in the U.S., India, S. Korea, and Japan as of this writing. Most of the other countries only use Sim so they don't have to worry about CDMA. CDMA also works in conjunction with ESN lock. ESN lock has to do with blacklisting or grey listing by mobile phone carriers. If an ESN is blacklisted by a network, then it means it can't be used by that network. To get around this you have to have an ESN put on another network like Cricket or Metropcs. People call this flashing but all you usually have to do is have your CDMA unlock code which is also called the SPC or MSL and is 000000 for Verizon and U.S. cellular but is a random number for sprint. Then you have to install a new PRL file for that carrier once you add your esn to their network. The PRL file is the Preferred Roaming List and pretty much determines what cellular coverage you get.  The menu to access, modify, or other wise change the PRL and the cellular coverage in CDMA phones is the MSL SPC codes and it secret ## dialing menu in CDMA mode such as ##775# for changing the PRL. The main thing is to get the Esn added to their network though. Usually Cricket or MetroPCs will add it for you and do all the software changes like the PRL upgrade for a small fee of about $10. Other carriers like Sprint will not usually add an ESN under any circumstances, which is a shame if you want to use sprint and at this time there is no way around this as far as I know other than to already have a sprint phone. If you don't have a sprint phone but you want sprint service, your best course of action would probably be to try and trade someone on craigslist phones. If not you can flash to MetroPCs or Cricket by calling them and asking them to add the esn and update the PRL to use their service. Every phone is different though and this is only a general explanation that seems to apply to most phones. 

Good Luck!

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Information on ESN Spoofing/cloning, legality, and if you can change to sprint

Technically getting your phone over to sprint is possible, but in order to do so you need a new esn to put on the phone that is in Sprint's database. Generally the phones sprint sells have esn's already added to their database and there is supposedly a way that is very troublesome and difficult to also get them to add your esn to their database but concerning esn spoofing or changing...

It is first and foremost not illegal unless you do it for ill gotten gain, such as using two separate phones with the same esn. That however is impossible because the radio/baseband which contains the esn is soldered onto the motherboard and every radio has it's own electronic fingerprint that is unique to the radio so if you try to do this, they will know so that is impossible really. So if you own two phones for example, and you want to swap the esn, it is perfectly legal because:

1. you own the phone and can do whatever you want with it. 

The trouble is there is so much secrecy, disinformation, and propaganda. The information is scarce. You know the ancient Egyptians did this very same thing and hid their knowledge so only the "elite" scribes could have it. They purposely made their language difficult to learn so only those with specialized training from the state/pharaoh could learn it!

So the only other way to change your esn besides being an absolute genius and expert at programming and hacking is to phyiscally install a new motherboard with the attached/soldered radio from an actual sprint phone. Unless you can get said phone for cheap because its say, has a broken screen, then it would probably be better just to buy a new phone, which is exactly what Sprint wants you to do!

All supposed programs that claim to change esn are untrustworthy. All of the ones I found online were scanned and found to contain viruses, particularly backdoor trojans. I wouldn't try downloading them if I were you!

At the very least, if you somehow do find a program that can swap the esn for you, you will need to purchase a completely brand new Sprint/boost mobile/virgin mobile phone that has never been activated and use the esn off of it. Once it gets activated its useless because the radio fingerprint has been detected and recorded!

After and if (and that is a big IF!) you do manage to swap the esn you need to reprogram your CDMA phone with the carrier information in the ## secret dialing menu's such as the MCC and MNC (Mobile country code and mobile network code) etc... and download a new sprint PRL. You will most probably also need a new Sprint Baseband/radio/RF modulator software to install to your phone/radio to be able to pick up sprint signals and be compatible. There's basically a checking software that sprint checks for to see if you have the correct information on your phone to be able to work directly on their network. They check for the correct ESN/meid/etc..., the correct radio/baseband, the correct PRL, etc... all of these softwares on your phone have to be compatible and "Synch" up with each other in a sense to be able to work on the network. It's done for the security. They want to have a very tight control on things, but if you are like me, you will want to have control over your own phone and not leave it up to someone else to dictate terms to you.

So the best thing to do, as far as I know, for the time being is to just trade your phone for a sprint phone if you really must use their network. Craigslist is good for that.

I will figure this out eventually, or someone else will, until then sayonara!

Thursday, April 21, 2011

How to Get UNLOCK Codes for Verizon, US Cellular, Sprint CDMA SPC MSL and blackberry Secret ## Dialing Codes

To get your SPC/MSL/CDMA UNLOCK/ code to reprogram, access hidden functions and menus, and extend the capabilities of your phone...

VERIZON - Verizon is defaulted to 000000

US Cellular - US Cellular is also defaulted to 00000

Sprint - Call Sprint (Caution! Read below)

To enter your secret code on your phone: ##

ex. enter: ##000000 for blackberry, ##000000# for HTC

For Sprint you must call sprint to access the phones. CAUTION: Do not attempt to download fraudulent programs claiming to be able to unlock your code! Sprint uses random numbers to generate their codes! These codes cannot be guessed so easily! It is impossible to determine what they might be because they are random! The only way would be to have a program to repeatedly guess numbers until it got it right, and that might brick your phone! Programs like UniCDMA, Hex Editor, CDMA workshop that claim to unlock your phone for a free download contain VIRUSES DO NOT DOWNLOAD THEM! People think they are cool if they can put a virus on your computer! They will attach it in the file and trick you into downloading it! Don't get tricked and have your virus software on always! These people did not make the viruses, they just think they are cool because they know how to attach them to a file and trick someone into getting it!

Solution: Call sprint and tell them you would like your reprogramming code. Ask them for the msl code. If your account is in good standing (I.e. no debt on the phone) they will most likely give it to you. If not try telling them an excuse like, "I am going to Cuba where there isn't normal diplomatic relations and Sprint/boost mobile/Virgin mobile does not offer service and the carrier needs my msl code to reprogram my phone to be able to use it there." This is called social engineering.

Part 2: Secret Codes

Most secret codes can be found online. The only possible exception would be blackberries. There doesn't seem to be a complete list of all the numbers, I believe I have collected most of them though.

The following secret code is available to all blackberry users, regardless of whether or not they have the msl/spc/CDMA unlock code: #4357*

Sprint/Boost Mobile/Virgin Mobile may give you two unlock codes, you can enter them both to do different things in the same ## format. It will bring up a list of data about your phone. Most of the data refers to how your phone receives and transmits signals or data. You can modify and change to make your phone do such things as: Go faster/higher data speed, get better coverage, expand or change your coverage to receive different cell towers/operators/carriers.

Here are some Blackberry codes that I know of:

I seem to have deleted my file by mistake. I will post them later when I get a chance.

Blackberry Dialing Codes:

• Name: Decibel meter.
• Description/purpose: Displays your signal strength in decibels, instead of bars.
• Process: Hold "Alt" and press "N", "M", "L", "L" (repeat to reverse the effect).

• Name: Address Book file verification.
• Description/purpose: Checks the data in your Address Book for inconsistencies.
• Process: In the Address Book, hold "Alt" and press "V", "A", "L", "D".

• Name: Address Book data structure rebuild.
• Description/purpose: Forces a data structure re-build in the Address Book...
• Process: In the Address Book, hold "Alt" and press "R", "B", "L", "D".

• Name: View source code.
• Description/purpose: Displays the source code of a Web page.
• Process: In the Browser, hold "Alt" and press "R", "B", "V", "S".

• Name: Help Me! menu.
• Description/purpose: Provides crucial technical information about your device, for when seeking technical support or help in forums...
• Process: Hold "Alt" and (left) "shift", then press "H".

• Name: IMEI display.
• Description/purpose: Displays your device's international mobile equipment identity (IMEI - your serial number) on-screen... Also works from all other GSM handsets.
• Process: Type "*", "#", "0", "6", "#" on the Home screen.

• Name: "Soft" reset.
• Description/purpose: Performs a "soft" reset of your device; the equivalent of doing a "battery pull" (ie. Removing the battery for a few seconds).
• Process: Press-and-hold "Alt", then press-and-hold (left) "shift", then press-and-hold "Del".

• Name: Event Log.
• Purpose: Displays event logs of all the system-level events that occur on your device...
• Process: Hold "Alt" and press "L", "G", "L", "G".

Sunday, April 3, 2011

How To unlock and Jailbreak any Iphone

This article is not exactly on Topic with my blog and is the second such article I have written concerning smartphone hacking techniques. It will stay here until I figure out what to do with these>

Unlocking and Jailbreaking might be difficult if you have never done this sort of thing before but once you do it the first time you will realize how easy it is. The trouble with iphone unlocking is there is so much gosh darn spam on the internet. Everyone seems to want to make a buck. I like money too, which is why I have ads on this blog, but I think I am different because I will only attempt to tell you the truth and not try to sidetrack you with nonsense just to make some money. I created this guide to try to counteract some of the disinformation on the internet about iphone unlocking BUT I AM NOT THE AUTHORITY ON THIS AND I RECOMMEND YOU CONSULT A VARIETY OF GUIDES< NOT JUST MINE< HOWEVER I"M PRETTY SURE EVERYTHING I WRITE IS ACCURATE AND I HAVE PERSONALLY TESTED AND DONE THIS!

The first thing you will need to do is see what your firmware version is and your baseband/modem version is. There are generally two ways to do this:

1. Check your iphone in Settings > General > About

2. If your phone is without an official sim card then it is impossible to check the settings or do anything with your phone except restore in recovery on itunes WHICH YOU DO  NOT WANT TO DO. In this case in order to check the firmware versions you will need some help. Tinyumbrella works for this. It is easy to download and very useful for a number of things. We will be using this again depending on what the status is of your own particular iphone. Download tiny umbrella by google searching for it or go here:

Once you have determined your firmware and baseband/modem versions the next thing you need to do is figure out if they are compatible with the unlock. Generally you may need to restore your phone to an older version. All of the firmware versions for the iphone are listed below. You will need to find the one you need. I would recommend either downloading 4.1 or 4.2.1 as those are the most recent versions that are unlockable (version 4.3 is not yet unlocked by anyone). In order to download an older firmware version you need to shit SHIFT and ALT together on your keyboard (It may just be SHIFT, I'm not too sure I always press ALT and that works too so eh :p) and once you are holding down SHIFT and ALT together click the RESTORE button in ITUNES. The next thing that should happen is your computer will pull up a list of files. You need to find the firmware version you downloaded and select it. Itunes should now restore your phone to that version if you did correctly. 

Warning: FIRMWARE DOWNLOAD ALSO CHANGES THE BASEBAND/MODEM Version. Pay careful attention to this. The latest baseband which somes with the newest firmware version 4.3 is non-unlockable, that is why people say not to download it! If you do download it, you can still unlock your phone and restore to an older version but on this particular unlock the GPS will not work! I do not think the GPS system is that great to begin with so not too bad of a loss, but you have been WARNED! If you do have version 4.3 you will need to install either version 4.1 or 4.2(.1) and then you will need to also download ultrasn0w to upgrade your baseband to the ipad baseband version 6.15 in order to unlock. This is further explained below.

1.0.0: iPhone1,1_1.0_1A543a_Restore.ipsw
1.0.1: iPhone1,1_1.0.1_1C25_Restore.ipsw
1.0.2: iPhone1,1_1.0.2_1C28_Restore.ipsw
1.1.1: iPhone1,1_1.1.1_3A109a_Restore.ipsw
1.1.2: iPhone1,1_1.1.2_3B48b_Restore.ipsw
1.1.3: iPhone1,1_1.1.3_4A93_Restore.ipsw
1.1.4: iPhone1,1_1.1.4_4A102_Restore.ipsw
2.0.0 (2G): iPhone1,1_2.0_5A347_Restore.ipsw
2.0.0 (3G): iPhone1,2_2.0_5A347_Restore.ipsw
2.0.1 (2G): iPhone1,1_2.0.1_5B108_Restore.ipsw
2.0.1 (3G): iPhone1,2_2.0.1_5B108_Restore.ipsw
2.0.2 (2G): iPhone1,1_2.0.2_5C1_Restore.ipsw
2.0.2 (3G): iPhone1,2_2.0.2_5C1_Restore.ipsw
2.1.0 (2G): iPhone1,1_2.1_5F136_Restore.ipsw
2.1.0 (3G): iPhone1,2_2.1_5F136_Restore.ipsw
2.2.0 (2G): iPhone1,1_2.2_5G77_Restore.ipsw
2.2.0 (3G): iPhone1,2_2.2_5G77_Restore.ipsw
2.2.1 (2G): iPhone1,1_2.2.1_5H1_Restore.ipsw
2.2.1 (3G): iPhone1,2_2.2.1_5H11_Restore.ipsw
3.0.0 (2G): iPhone1,1_3.0_7A341_Restore.ipsw
3.0.0 (3G): iPhone1,2_3.0_7A341_Restore.ipsw
3.0.0 (3GS): iPhone2,1_3.0_7A341_Restore.ipsw 
3.0.1 (2G): iPhone1,1_3.0.1_7A400_Restore.ipsw
3.0.1 (3G): iPhone1,2_3.0.1_7A400_Restore.ipsw
3.0.1 (3GS): iPhone2,1_3.0.1_7A400_Restore.ipsw
3.1.0 (2G): iPhone1,1_3.1_7C144_Restore.ipsw
3.1.0 (3G): iPhone1,2_3.1_7C144_Restore.ipsw
3.1.0 (3GS): iPhone2,1_3.1_7C144_Restore.ipsw
3.1.2 (2G): iPhone1,1_3.1.2_7D11_Restore.ipsw
3.1.2 (3G): iPhone1,2_3.1.2_7D11_Restore.ipsw 
3.1.2 (3GS): iPhone2,1_3.1.2_7D11_Restore.ipsw
3.1.3 (2G): iPhone1,1_3.1.3_7E18_Restore.ipsw
3.1.3 (3G): iPhone1,2_3.1.3_7E18_Restore.ipsw
3.1.3 (3GS): iPhone2,1_3.1.3_7E18_Restore.ipsw
4.0.0 (3G): iPhone1,2_4.0_8A293_Restore.ipsw
4.0.0 (3GS): iPhone2,1_4.0_8A293_Restore.ipsw
4.0.0 (4): iPhone3,1_4.0_8A293_Restore.ipsw
4.0.1 (3G): iPhone1,2_4.0.1_8A306_Restore.ipsw
4.0.1 (3GS): iPhone2,1_4.0.1_8A306_Restore.ipsw
4.0.1 (4): iPhone3,1_4.0.1_8A306_Restore.ipsw
4.0.2 (3G): iPhone1,2_4.0.2_8A400_Restore.ipsw
4.0.2 (3GS): iPhone2,1_4.0.2_8A400_Restore.ipsw
4.0.2 (4): iPhone3,1_4.0.2_8A400_Restore.ipsw
4.1.0 (3G): iPhone1,2_4.1_8B117_Restore.ipsw
4.1.0 (3GS): iPhone2,1_4.1_8B117_Restore.ipsw
4.1.0 (4): iPhone3,1_4.1_8B117_Restore.ipsw
4.2.1 (3G): iPhone1,2_4.2.1_8C148_Restore.ipsw
4.2.1 (3GS): iPhone2,1_4.2.1_8C148a_Restore.ipsw
4.2.1 (4): iPhone3,1_4.2.1_8C148_Restore.ipsw
4.2.6 (4 CDMA): iPhone3,3_4.2.6_8E200_Restore.ipsw
4.3.0 (3GS): iPhone2,1_4.3_8F190_Restore.ipsw
4.3.0 (4 GSM): iPhone3,1_4.3_8F190_Restore.ipsw
4.3.1 (3GS): iPhone2,1_4.3.1_8G4_Restore.ipsw
4.3.1 (4 GSM): iPhone3,1_4.3.1_8G4_Restore.ipsw

Once you have your firmware downloaded that you need the next step is to change your baseband. One way to change the baseband is an application on Cydia called Fuzzyband.  Cydia is the third part app store that almost everyone who has a Jailbroken iphone uses so in order to gain access to Cydia you will need to Jailbreak your iphone. You will need Cydia anyways for Ultrasn0w which is the unlocking Software that I am recommending to use in this guide (although there are others, they are not nearly as good)

In order to Jailbreak you need to  Download Limera1n   Limera1n was created by Geohot who was the first person to ever unlock an iphone a couple years back. It is very much so the recommended software for Jailbreaking and is very easy to use. Just download and follow the instructions. 

Once you have your iphone Jailbroken you need to you unlock it. The easiest way to do this is to download Cydia and from Cydia go and download Ultrasn0w. The easiest way to download cydia is to just go to the Cydia website from your iphone. But what if you don't have internet access like wifi on your iphone yet? There is a Solution: Download redsn0w. With redsn0w on your computer you can launch the file and follow the instructions and it will download Cydia for you. There are other things Redsn0w can do as well but I don't feel I need to get into all of that but you will need to check the IPAd Baseband install if your baseband/modem version is 5.15 because the 5.15 baseband is not able to be unlocked at this time. Doing this will update your baseband to 6.15 which is the same as the Ipad (hence why it's called IPad baseband). Now there are some risks with the 6.15 baseband but if you want to know about them I recommend you do a google search because I don't think they are that risky and I don't want to explain that and waste my own time and effort typing some silly disclaimer. If you are trying to unlock Iphone or Ipad, etc... then you should already know the risks. This is HACKING!  Just follow the instructions on redsn0w. Download: Download RedSn0w 0.9.6b1  

Once you have Cydia installed either by going to the cydia website or installing from your computer using Redsn0w you can now proceed to unlock your phone by using Ultrasn0w. Now for this part you really do need an internet connection. The easiest way would probably be to use the WIFI. If you don't have WIFI at home go to the Library or Mcdonalds or something and use theirs. It should only take a few minutes to do this last part and the total process can be achieved by most people within an hour or less and for an experienced user can take a matter of 10-15 minutes. That is how easy this is IF YOU KNOW WHAT TO DO 

So here is the last step to Unlock Iphone:

Go into Cydia.

Click manage

Click Sources

Look for Repo666 Ultrasn0w.


Test a Sim card like T mobile or Simple Mobile. Should be unlocked. Congratulations. You just hacked your iphone! :D Way to stick it to the man!

Ice Cream Sundaes and Dueling - Why people SLANDER one another

Yesterday Google celebrated the birth of the ice cream sundae. I was curious to find out more about this and I discovered that there was a strong dispute as to who get's to claim the right as the birthplace of the ice cream sundae. The credit usually goes (and the one google has also chosen) to Ithaca New York. The above image was taken circa 1901 and is in one of the historical depositories of the United States of America. The city pictured is Ithaca, New York. Ithaca was named after a Greek Island and the name was chosen by a clerk at the time by the name of Robert Harpur. Harpur had many professions, not the least of which was a clerk during this time and he was primarily a teacher and scholar in his greatest capacity because one of his pupils was none other than Alexander Hamilton. Harpur had an interest in ancient Greek and Roman history as was common of the time as there was quite a lot of fervor surrounding the classical ideals that had a large influence on the founding fathers of the United States. I would like the reader to notice the apparent "cleanliness" of the city, for lack of a better term, and how there are no automobiles present yet people seem to be quite busy. You will also notice power lines which carry electricity and were a relatively recent invention at the time. Everyone is well addressed. I hope you will agree that these people are Ladies and Gentlemen. Please contrast that with the current state of affairs today. We do not currently have this level of decency I think and the contrast is stark. So what changed?

I have studied much history and I have to think the difference between then and now is fear. In the modern age of today people don't seem to have much fear. They say what they want, when they want no matter if it is appropriate or not. Back then people wouldn't do that because if they did they might get into a fight. Today if you get into a fight you will most probably be going to jail, so anyone can say what they want, but back then if you said something that was thought to be inappropriate you would often times be in a fight. That is why, I think, that largely people had fear. The formal practice of fighting has typically been known as dueling. We no longer use that term and dueling has since been outlawed in much of the world, so people say what when they want.

There is an irony here in the fact that Alexander Hamilton was killed in a duel by none other than Aaron Burr. This has a lot to do with Thomas Jefferson. The reason is because Hamilton and Jefferson were often in dispute with one another. Hamilton was the one who started the Federal Reserve and Thomas Jefferson would often argue and fight against that. I have not discovered any accurate sources for determining when dueling stopped in the United States but it seems to have taken a downturn at this time as Alexander Hamilton was well liked. Personally I do not care for Alexander Hamilton and I don't think Thomas Jefferson did either. The dispute was so heavy that it resulted in a duel between Hamilton and Burr. Burr was a close acquittance of Thomas Jefferson. So if we say that dueling was largely a safety net against debauchery and sinful nature in the case of people blaspheming against one another, you can see it's quite ironic that the person who would name the city would have been the teacher of Hamilton who was largely responsible, due to public outcry in a sense to his death since he was well liked, for the eventual downfall and outlawing in dueling. There were basically two factions: Those who believed disputes should only be settled in courts of law, and those who believe dueling could also be used, in addition to courts of law, to settle disputes. I am personally of the former class and believe that dueling, though violent, serves a great purpose in keeping order in society and preventing men from blaspheming and sinning against each other. If you have ever been in the position where someone was blaspheming and slandering you, you might digress that you would have certainly liked to have challenged and fought that person, and you might also digress that taken the person to court, most of the time, is a waste of time and effort which doesn't usually accomplish anything to the greater effect. So that is why people call you names and there is nothing you can do about it except slander and insult them back.